Science > Chemistry > Introduction to Chemistry > Chemical Classification of Substances. In the last article, we have studied the significance of chemistry and its branches. For example, in the reaction between sodium metal and chlorine gas to form sodium chloride, 2Na + Cl2 → 2NaCl, electrons (e−) are transferred from sodium atoms to chlorine atoms to form Na+ and Cl− ions in the reaction product, sodium chloride. Thus, acids are defined as proton donors. molecular weight) or - on the other hand - functional properties above the chemical level are also used for building chemical taxonomies. There are three states of matter. The most common acids are aqueous solutions of HCl (hydrochloric acid), H2SO4 (sulfuric acid), HNO3 (nitric acid), and H3PO4 (phosphoric acid). When a given metal atom can form more than one type of cation, the charge on the particular cation present must be specified in the name of the compound. It clearly would be impossible to memorize trivial names for such a large number of compounds. Sometimes other criteria like purely physical ones (e.g. Borane is an example of an inorganic compound. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Oxidation involves a loss of electrons, whereas reduction involves a gain of electrons. The resulting covalent bond is given a special name because one entity (the ligand) furnishes both of the electrons that are subsequently shared in the bond. Examples are water, which contains H2O molecules; methane, which contains CH4 molecules; and hydrogen fluoride, which contains HF molecules. An atom of sodium (Na) donates one of its electrons to an atom of chlorine (Cl) in a chemical reaction, and the resulting positive ion (Na. pharmacological function is integrated, because the QSAR can usually not be directly computed from structural qualities. An example of a coordination compound is [Co(NH3)6]Cl3, which contains the Co(NH3)63+ ion, a cobalt ion (Co3+) with six ammonia molecules (NH3) attached to it, acting as ligands. In this article, we shall study the chemical classification of substances. For example, water (H2O) is a compound consisting of two hydrogen atoms bonded to an oxygen atom. Another classification scheme for chemical compounds is based on the types of bonds that the compound contains. Therefore, the names of binary compounds containing metals such as these must include a Roman numeral to specify the charge on the ion. Chemists coined names such as sugar of lead, quicklime, milk of magnesia, Epsom salts (see magnesium), and laughing gas to describe familiar compounds. It can also be included in the field of a typical DNA, RNA. Let us know more about the Classification of Organic Compounds and the general categories into which organic compounds are divided. Chemical classification systems attempt to classify elements or compounds according to certain chemical functional or structural properties. We developed a new method for the classification of chemical compounds and protein pockets and applied it to a random screening experiment for macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). An alternative system for naming compounds containing metals that form only two ions is sometimes seen, especially in older literature. Find out the answers in this quiz. There are, however, certain familiar compounds that are always referred to by their common names. Trends in the chemical properties of the elements, Ionic compounds containing polyatomic ions, Ultraviolet and visible (UV-visible) spectroscopy, Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, Carbon-13 magnetic resonance spectroscopy, *Mercury(I) ions always occur bound together to form Hg. A simple cation (obtained from a single atom) takes its name from its parent element. Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System, Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Chemical_classification&oldid=982934848, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 11 October 2020, at 07:58. Chemicals can be classified by their structure (e.g., hydrocarbons), uses (e.g., pesticides), physical properties (e.g., volatile organic compounds [VOCs]), radiological properties (e.g., radioactive materials), or other factors. Bases, on the other hand, are proton acceptors. According to my knowledge chemistry has 5 main branches like, Physical chemistry -means the use of physics knowledge in solving chemistry problems. In this process, each sodium atom loses an electron and is thus oxidized, and each chlorine atom gains an electron and is thus reduced. That's quite a lot, isn't it? H+ + OH− → HOH (usually written H2O). For example, lead (Pb) can exist as Pb2+ or Pb4+ ions in ionic compounds. The systematic names for H2O and NH3, for example, are never used; these vital compounds are known only as water and ammonia, respectively. In addition, inorganic compounds include hydrides (containing hydrogen atoms or H− ions), nitrides (containing N3− ions), phosphides (containing P3− ions), and sulfides (containing S2− ions). For example, Li, A simple anion (obtained from a single atom) is named by taking the root of the parent element’s name and adding the suffix. Elements and compounds are the two forms in which pure substances exist. Inorganic compounds are most often classified in terms of the elements or groups of elements that they contain. Chemical Classifications (chemicals according to their structure, properties, or use) Chemical classes are groupings that relate chemicals by similar features. Such names are called common or trivial names. Premium Membership is now 50% off! Ionic bonding in sodium chloride. One common method is based on the specific elements present. For example, oxides contain one or more oxygen atoms, hydrides contain one or more hydrogen atoms, and halides contain one or … The most important of these are coordination compounds in which the metal atom or ion is surrounded by two to six ligands. Biochemical compounds can largely be classified into four major families: the carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids. In a solid ionic compound there are ions and the large electrostatic forces between the positively and negatively charged ions are responsible for the bonding which holds these particles together. According to Nature of Action 4. On the basis of Mechanism of Action 3. Whereas chemical function is closely dependent on chemical structure, the situation becomes more involved when e.g. Sodium chloride is a chemical compound formed from sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl) in a 1:1 ratio. Common salt (sodium chloride) is one of the best-known ionic compounds. The following points will highlight the five categories of classification of hormones. What element is almost as light as hydrogen? Organic compounds are characterized as those compounds with a backbone of carbon atoms, and all the remaining compounds are classified as inorganic. In each case, the Roman numeral in the name specifies the charge of the metal ion present. According to Chemical Nature 2. It is very important … Sometimes other criteria like purely physical ones (e.g. Although the formula for sodium chloride is NaCl, the compound does not contain actual NaCl molecules. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. On the other hand, the compound FeCl2, which contains Fe2+, is designated as iron(II) chloride. Chemical compounds may be classified according to several different criteria. Molecular compounds contain discrete molecules, which are held together by sharing electrons (covalent bonding). Ligands are ions or neutral molecules with electron pairs that they can donate to the metal atom to form a coordinate-covalent bond. The names for FeCl3 and FeCl2 are then ferric chloride and ferrous chloride, respectively. The most common base is the hydroxide ion (OH−), which reacts with an H+ ion to form a water molecule. Matter and its Different States: The matter is any substances that have mass and that occupies space. What do you call a blend of two chemical elements? Organic compounds constitute about 90% of all compounds. It is specified as the chemical change within the living organism, it treats the chemical reaction by using an organism within the living things, and a few of a typical organism is named as lipids, protein, carbohydrates and nuclides. On the basis of Stimulation of Endocrine Glands. The "others" category of compound classification includes all those compounds that don't fit into one of the other four categories. When ionic oxides are dissolved in water, the O2− ions react with water molecules to form hydroxide ions (OH−), and a basic solution results. Molecular oxides react with water to produce oxyacids, such as sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and nitric acid (HNO3). Category # 1. Elements constitute the simplest chemical substances in which all the atoms are exactly the same. You may know that elements make up the air we breathe and the water we drink, but do you know more about them? Ionic compounds contain ions and are held together by the attractive forces among the oppositely charged ions.
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