Out of these cookies, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. Cultural defense theory suggests that religion helps some ethnic minority groups preserve a sense of unique cultural identity in the face of an unwelcoming and hostile mainstream culture. Weber (1920) theorised that certain denominations and sects appeal to the deprived because they can help people cope with their deprivation. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. Reasons why Ethnic Minorities have Higher Levels of Religiosity, All My A Level Sociology Revision Resources, The Functionalist Perspective on the Family, Positivism and Interpretivism in Social Research, Environmental problems and sustainable development, Social Action Theory (Interpretivism and Interactionism), Social class, wealth and income inequalities. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. I just want to know how I can explain cultural defense within the context of religion and secularization. These cookies do not store any personal information. Cultural defense theory suggests that religion helps some ethnic minority groups preserve a sense of unique cultural identity in the face of an unwelcoming and hostile mainstream culture. Cultural defense operates when there are two competing faiths jostling for prominence and religious loyalty is strengthened. PEEL Paragraphs Cultural defence is where religion holds a focal point for the defence of national, ethnic, local or other group identity in a struggle against a external force such as a hostile foreign power. Eventually, in 1979, an Islamic inspired revolution removed the Shah from power and led to the creation of an Islamic republic. Two examples of religion as cultural defence from the late 20th century are Poland and Iran. Bruce argues that religion is used for either cultural defence or cultural transition. Defending the community against a threat often… Cultural Defence & Cultural Transiton. This post summarizes four theories which seek to explain this trend: cultural transition theory, cultural defense theory, neo-marxism, and Weberianism. It was under Communist rule imposed from the outside by the Soviet Union. 5. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. Cultural Defence. Ethnic minority groups tend to suffer from higher levels of exploitation, especially when they are used as scapegoats for some of society’s problems (as Stuart Hall argues in ‘. Bruce argues that religion is used for either cultural defence or cultural transition. Both Iran and Poland are examples of religion as cultural defence against a perceived external enemy and its local allies (the Shah and the Polish communist party) and the transnational dimension is an important element in understanding the role that religion played. ( Log Out /  on Reasons why Ethnic Minorities have Higher Levels of Religiosity. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Defending the community against a threat often gives religion a prominent role in religion. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. Religion can be a way to provide emotional support in the midst of racism and intolerance from mainstream society. Defending the community against a threat often gives religion a prominent role in politics. Religious Fundamentalism and Cultural Defence 1. Steve Bruce (2002) sees one function of religion in today’s world as that of cultural defence. Bruce: Cultural defence. Cultural transition theory holds that once a group has settled into a new culture, commitment to religion will gradually weaken. For example, Catholicism in Poland was a source of national identity In such situations, religion has special significance for its followers because it symbolises the group or society’s collective identity. Religion can be a way to provide emotional support in the midst of racism and intolerance from mainstream society. But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. African-Caribbeans in the UK experience higher levels of poverty and have higher levels of religion. 5. Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com. What is the definition of cultural defence? ( Log Out /  In Poland between 1945 and 1989, the Catholic Church symbolized resistance to the Communist regime backed by the Soviet Union and served as a popular rallying point for opposition groups such as the trade union Solidarity. Cultural defence is when religion is used as a way defending a culture that is under threat. Neo-Marxist theory holds that religion has some degree of autonomy from the economic base, and that religious institutions can act as agents of revolutionary change for the oppressed. Hectic Teacher's A level Sociology Support. How has globalisation impacted Organised Crime? Poland. RELIGIOUS FUNDAMENTALISM CULTURAL DEFENCE 2. This later seems to be the case as third and fourth generation immigrants tend to display lower levels of religiosity than first and second generation immigrants. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. FUNDAMENTALISM Giddens identifies 5 characteristics of Fundamentalists Seek to return to traditional basics Believe their view is the only true view of the world Justify their views by reference to sacred texts and dogma (narrow minded beliefs) Avoid contact with people who hold … This is where religion serves to unite a community against an external threat. Steve Bruce (2002) sees one function of religion in today’s world as that of cultural defence. Religious institutions, for example, provided a sense of community, and actually working together to build a ‘religious infrastructure’ promoted a sense of social solidarity. ( Log Out /  Change ). For example, in Poland Catholicism was a key part of Polish culture that was being oppressed by a Communist state. 9 years ago. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. They illustrate how religion can be used in defence of national identity in the face of political domination by an external power. When the first waves of immigrants came to Britain from the West-Indies and Asia, religion helped immigrants deal with the stress of adjusting to a new culture. The Nation of Islam in America is probably the most obvious example of this. In both cases, therefore, the role of religion has to be understood in a transnational context. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. This is where religion serves to unite a community against an external threat. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Weberians suggest that there is a relationship between poverty and religiosity. When Black Africans and Caribbean Christians first came to Britain, they were not generally welcomed by the congregations of mainstream churches. In Iran, Islam became the focus for opposition to a corrupt, brutal, and Western-backed monarchy led the Shah. In such situations, religion has special significance for its followers because it symbolises the group or society’s collective identity. Cultural defence is when religion is used as a way defending a culture that is under threat. In the UK, this certainly does not explain the experience of every ethnic minority group… Sikhs and Hindus (mainly of Indian origin) for example, experience lower levels of deprivation than whites. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. Ken Pryce’s (1979) research into the role of Pentacostalism among African-Caribbeans in the UK is a useful application of Weberianism. This website uses cookies to improve your experience. There does seem to be a correlation between religion, ethnicity and poverty…. In Poland, the external power was Soviet communism, while in Iran it was Western culture and capitalism. ( Log Out /  Pentecostalism emphasizes the importance of family and community, and values hard-work and thrift, all of which offer practical support for helping to cope with poverty as well as a sense of spiritual status. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. For example, in Poland Catholicism was a key part of Polish culture that was being oppressed by a Communist state. Cultural Defence & Cultural Transiton. Poland and Iran are two examples which illustrate how religion can be used in defence of national identity in the face of political domination. One of the ways they responded to this was to establish their own forms of Pentecostal Christianity. Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. Cultural transition theory emphasizes the fact that most ethnic minorities in the UK originate from societies with higher levels of religiosity. Given that immigration is still a relatively recent phenomenon, it is not surprising that ethnic minorities are still more religious than White Britons. Learn how your comment data is processed. Ethnic minorities in Britain tend to see religion as more important than Whites. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. A level sociology revision – education, families, research methods, crime and deviance and more!

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