His answer focused on the development of the Protestant ethic—the duty to “work hard in one’s calling”—in particular Protestant sects such as Calvinism, Pietism, and Baptism. The feminist perspective focuses specifically on gender inequality. animism the religion that believes in the divinity of nonhuman beings, like animals, plants, and objects of the natural world, cults religious groups that are small, secretive, and highly controlling of members and have a charismatic leader, denomination a large, mainstream religion that is not sponsored by the state, ecclesia a religion that is considered the state religion, established sects sects that last but do not become denominations, interactionists individuals who believe that experiences are not sacred unless individuals in a society regard them as sacred, monotheism a religion based on belief in a single deity, polytheism a religion based on belief in multiple deities, religion a system of beliefs, values, and practices concerning what a person holds to be sacred or spiritually significant, religious beliefs specific ideas that members of a particular faith hold to be true, religious experience the conviction or sensation that one is connected to “the divine”, religious rituals behaviours or practices that are either required for or expected of the members of a particular group, sect a small, new offshoot of a denomination. At the end of The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, Weber pessimistically describes the fate of modern humanity as an “iron cage.” The iron cage is Weber’s metaphor for the condition of modern humanity in a technical, rationally defined, and “efficiently” organized society. Rising from the concept that our world is socially constructed, symbolic interactionism studies the symbols and interactions of everyday life. (As an aside, if you enjoy “who done it” detective novels and are interested in Catholicism, the sociologist Reverend Andrew Greeley referenced here was also a prolific best-selling novelist, whose protagonists Father Blackie Ryan and psychic Catholic Nuala McGrail solve complex crimes while maintaining, even rejoicing in, their faith.). In his writing The Protestant Work Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1905), he contends that the Protestant work ethic influenced the development of capitalism by overturning the traditional anti-materialist Christian values of poverty. Many of the classical sociological theories predicted that levels of religiosity in Western societies would decline due to the process of secularization. Weber noted that certain kinds of Protestantism supported the pursuit of material gain by motivating believers to work hard, be successful, and not spend their profits on frivolous things. ), Don Martindale, Free Press. This type of analysis became the basis of the functionalist perspective in sociology. What are megachurchs and how are they changing the face of religion? Retrieved June 14, 2014 from http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/reporting/ind.php, B.C. As he summarized, “In [Puritan theologian Richard] Baxter’s view the care for external goods should only lie on the shoulders of the ‘saint like a light cloak, which could be thrown aside at any moment.’ But fate decreed that the cloak should become an iron cage” (Weber 1905, p. 181). For example, it helps answer questions like “How was the world created?” “Why do we suffer?” “Is there a plan for our lives?” and “Is there an afterlife?” As another function, religion provides emotional comfort in times of crisis. Weber is known best for his 1904 book, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. These views offer different lenses through which to study and understand society: functionalism, symbolic interactionism, and critical sociology. “Religious Attendance and Subjective Well-Being among Older Americans: Evidence from the General Social Survey.” Review of Religious Research 45:116–129. Sociological terms for different kinds of religious organizations are, in order of decreasing influence in society, ecclesia, denomination, sect, and cult. Retrieved May 15, 2014: (http://www.gutenberg.org/files/41360/41360-h/41360-h.htm#Page_445). This growth has been at the expense of the Catholic Church, long a bastion of strength in Latin and South America. Fieser, Ezra, and Alves, Lise, 2012, Latin evangelicals’ explosive growth, May 08, Catholic San Fransisco, Retrieved June 18, 2014 from http://www.catholic-sf.org/ns.php?newsid=2&id=59891, Gentleman, Jeffrey. Retrieved June 18, 2014 (http://www.pewglobal.org/2013/06/04/the-global-divide-on-homosexuality/), Statistics Canada. 2013. View the piece in its entirety here: http://openstaxcollege.org/l/PBS_Frontline. The university intends to take the bar associations in British Columbia, Ontario, and Nova Scotia to court “to respond to what it calls threats against freedom of religion” (CBC 2014). The rituals, the worship of icons, and the belief in supernatural beings “excite, maintain or recreate certain mental states” (Durkheim 1912) that bring people together, provide a ritual and symbolic focus, and unify them. As outlined below, Canada is no stranger to religion as an agent of social change. Religion can also serve as a filter for examining other issues in society and other components of a culture. The Shallows (2010) Nicholas Carr. He noted that in modern industrial societies, business leaders and owners of capital, the higher grades of skilled labour, and the most technically and commercially trained personnel were overwhelmingly Protestant. (The modern use of “work ethic” comes directly from Weber’s Protestant ethic, although as Weber noted, the compulsion to work hard in one’s calling had by the 19th and 20th centuries largely lost its religious connotations.) In its pejorative use, these groups are often disparaged as being secretive, highly controlling of members’ lives, and dominated by a single, charismatic leader. One of the most important functions of religion, from a functionalist perspective, is the opportunities it creates for social interaction and the formation of groups. As opposed to the traditional teachings of the Catholic Church in which poverty was a virtue and labour simply a means for maintaining the individual and community, the Protestant sects began to see hard, continuous labour as a spiritual end in itself. Scholars are also aware that these definitions are not static. For example, countries such as Canada that have a lesser level of impact from faith on our day-to-day routine are more tolerant, even accepting of, homosexuality (Trinity Western University notwithstanding). Other common affiliations for new immigrant are Muslim (18 percent), Hindu (8 percent), and Sikh (5 percent). I’m not an expert in the sociology of religion, but it is a fascinating area within the study of sociology. Types of Religious Organizations

C Dominant 7th Chord, Can Mobs Spawn On String, A Pocket Guide To Public Speaking 5th Edition, Trout Lake Depth Chart, How To Cook Canned Vienna Sausage, Delicious Rendezvous Cast, Sony Car Stereo Display Not Working, Lemon Meringue Pudding Cups, 72 Inch Shipping Box,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Post comment