The flux changes, largely unknown, are denoted by Δ and those highlighted in red have an observational or physical basis underlying them. We have made important progress with global measurements of precipitation from satellite programs like the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM, ) and now more recently the Global Precipitation Mission (GPM, ) and with efforts to blend surface rain gauge observations with satellite observations (such as Global precipitation Climatology Project, ; Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM, IMERG; https://pmm.nasa.gov/data-access/downloads/gpm. (a) The regionally distributed slopes of the correlations between column water vapour change and sea surface temperature (SST) change (in % K−1) over a 29-year period of sustained satellite water vapour and SST observations. What are the major reservoirs of Earth's water. (4) Earth's hydrological cycle, including human influences on it, is shown to significantly affect the apparent rate of GMSL rise by substantial amounts for extended periods of time. (c) GRACE record length trends (2002–2016) over the Indian subcontinent (in liquid water equivalent (LWE) units in cm per year), showing extensive groundwater depletion in Northwest India, as first described by Rodell et al. The transport of atmospheric water vapour by the large-scale wind fields associated with weather systems, has a strong influence on where clouds form and how much precipitation falls. Figure 2. These shifts in the q – δD distributions over the S. Amazon provide direct observational evidence that rainforest transpiration during the late dry season plays a central role in initiating the dry-to-wet season transition over the southern Amazon. Intervals shown for TRMM anomalies are offset by three months in order to provide context for changes in mass (fig. These data were processed by the Sea Level Research Group of the University of Colorado (CU). Glacier retreat reflects of strongly negative mass balances over the last 30 years . The model is able to reproduce the evolution of the Greenland Ice sheet (GrIS) surface mass balance (SMB) from 2007 to 2010 (figure 11d). The isotopic composition of water vapour evaporated from tropical land generally has a value between 0 and −75‰, whereas water vapour originating from the tropical ocean generally has a range between −75 and −100‰ (e.g.  provided the first consensus estimate of glacial ice loss from a synthesis of the mass-budget estimates from both satellite gravimetry and altimetry, and from local glaciological records. The relation between zonal values of E-P and surface salinity (units are in practical salinity scale 1978 , after Wüst . The Earth's water reservoirs from largest to smallest: Ocean. Satellite-based measures of greenness are expressed as leaf area index (LAI) which is a dimensionless ratio of area of leaves to area of underlying ground. By contrast, the tiny reservoir of water contained within the atmosphere is constantly being recycled at a rapid rate. Of the observed ocean mass change of 1.58 mm year−1, approximately 0.77 mm year−1 arises from Greenland melt, 0.49 mm year−1 from Antarctica melt, with a total change (including glaciers) of 0.32 ± 0.13 mm year−1 from continental land water storage, being about 20% of the total mass change contribution. Will groundwater ease freshwater stress under climate change? (Online version in colour. We declare we have no competing interests. Published by the Royal Society. That study concludes that less than 6% of the groundwater in the uppermost portion of Earth's landmass is modern. Gardner et al. Sensitivity experiments performed with this model demonstrated that the greenhouse effect of clouds provides enough energy to enhance the GrIS melt water runoff by 56 ± 20 Gt yr−1 (i.e.
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